Canada by Treaty

Canada by Treaty: Negotiating Histories

Canada by Treaty: Negotiating Histories is a new pop-up exhibit that will travel between the University of Toronto's three campuses. The exhibit explores treaties, those legal agreements with Indigenous peoples that allowed non-Indigenous people to live on and own land in what is now Canada. The exhibit responds to the 150th anniversary of Confederation by explaining in accessible language the long history of treaty making, and how and why these agreements were essential to the foundation of modern Canada. Occupying about a 15 X 15 space, the exhibit shape of two offset semi circles reflects the current state of treaty relationships in Canada today.

Stories emerge from Canada by Treaty through a blend of maps, paintings, text and archival photographs. These include that of Honoré Jaxon, a former student at the University of Toronto. Jaxon sympathized deeply with Aboriginal grievances and in 1884 became Louis Riel’s personal secretary. Other stories include Nahnebahwequay, who travelled to England while heavily pregnant to discuss the “wholesale theft” of lands in Southern Ontario to Queen Victoria. Also in the exhibit is the account of Shingwaukonce and Nebanachoging, Anishinaabe leaders who negotiated an ‘escalator clause’ in 1850 that proposed an increase to annuity payments as land was developed (although it never surpassed $4 per person).

Co-curated by Professors Laurie Bertram and Heidi Bohaker and James Bird (Nehiyawak/ Cree), an outstanding mature undergraduate student, the exhibit draws on content created by students in Bohaker’s joint 4th year undergraduate /graduate seminar Canada by Treaty: Alliances, Title Transfers and Land Claims.

Free downloads from Canada by Treaty:

The Treaty Maps printed on the exhibit may be downloaded here and used without permission for non-profit and educational purposes, including other websites.

  1. Map showing overlaid: Canada’s Historic Treaties, Contemporary Agreements (made after 1973) and locations of Canada’s Existing First Nations Communities. PDF iconCanadian Treaties Map.pdf
  2. Map showing the boundaries of Treaties and the University of Toronto campuses. PDF iconToronto Treaties Map.pdf

The Credit Line should read: Map produced by GIS and Cartography Office, Department of Geography, University of Toronto for the exhibit Canada By Treaty: Negotiating Histories, co-curated by  Heidi Bohaker, James Bird and Laurie Bertram. ©2017.

Commercial/for profit users please contact Professor Bohaker for permission.

Exhibit Schedule: Where is it now?

Venue Dates Room/Location
Hart House 28 April to 28 May, 2017 inclusive Map Room, 1st Floor. Accessible
University College 30 May to 29 June, 2017 inclusive Rotunda, 1st Floor. Accessible.
Lieutenant Governor's Office, Queen's Park 23 June to 10 July 2017 inclusive Lieutenant Governor's Suite, Queen's Park. Accessible.
Sidney Smith Hall 10 July 2017 Main floor foyer (across from Second Cup). Accessible.
Robarts Library TBD (September  2017) 2nd floor foyer in front of Fisher Rare Book library
Regis College TBD TBD
University of Toronto Scarborough TBD TBD