pp. 38-72 (35 pages)
This journal article examines the creation, early usage, and meaning of China’s U-Shaped Line territorial claim in the South China Sea islands dispute. It analyzes relevant Republican Chinese archival files, many of which remain virtually unused by scholars who examine the dispute. It is developed from my Master’s thesis, "'Since Time Immemorial': China’s historical claim in the South China Sea," completed at the University of Calgary in November 2013. The journal article provides new interpretations of primary sources, corrects mistakes in my Master’s thesis, and covers recent developments in the South China Sea dispute that have occurred since 2013.